Archive for the ‘读书’ Category

读一点《唐诗三百首》

Friday, February 24th, 2012

1、《唐诗三百首》版本很多,看哪个?首推中华书局繁体版《唐诗三百首》,优点:正体字印刷,沿袭1959年版,古朴可观,夹注易读,价廉物美。次推金性尧的《唐诗三百首新注》,优点:注释好,有见地,对八股式的诗评一概不用。给大家推荐一个最好的版本,请购买金性尧全集的第七卷吧,精装厚纸大字,朴实精美,而且还拆卖。唯一一点不厚道的地方就是有点对不起日后想买全集的书友。手快有,手慢无。

2、唐诗的选本很多,唐代以来有一百多种,选编者不乏王安石,王士禛等名家,但是唯独蘅塘退士的这本经历了时间的考验,成为古今唐诗第一选本。《全唐诗》有48000多首诗,从中选出300,诚不易也。难得的是,它上至唐玄宗,下至杜秋娘,和尚,歌女,三教九流,方方面面都照顾到了。

3、《唐诗三百首》有多体贴,从一个例子就可以看出来。蘅塘退士深知,读这本书的血统中,日后落第的占大多数。所以特意选了王维的《送綦毋潜落第还乡》(圣代无隐者,英灵尽来归。 遂令东山客,不得顾采薇…)金性尧解说:“编选一个普通性读本,必须照顾到各方面的读者对象。

4、我初中的时候,要到离家三里外的中学上学,每天经过一片田野。我经常揣着一本繁体竖排的《唐诗三百首》,在路上读。难免一知半解,很多字也认不全,比如《月下独酌》中的“醒时相交歡”我总是读成“醒时相交飲”,因为这俩字的繁体字长得是在太像了。那时候我最喜欢李白。

5、多年来,我一直认为杜甫老气横秋,年龄一定比李白大,后来才知道,原来李比杜大11岁。两人自744年洛阳见面之后,就成了生死契阔的好朋友,杜说他俩“醉眠秋共被,携手日同行”,当然我觉得杜甫有一点剃头挑子一头热。他一共给李白写了20多首诗,李只给他写了寥寥几首。

6、杜甫梦李白的诗,情真意切,忧伤入骨。两人自745年一别之后,至死未见。杜甫听说李白被流放夜郎,认为丫死了。《天末怀李白》中说,“应共冤魂语,投诗曾汨罗”,拿李白比作屈原,曲笔祭奠李白。其实此时李白已蒙赦,正在洞庭湖上优哉游哉。友谊从来都是不对等的。友情未必能得到回应。

7、在文学批评家中,我越发不喜欢金圣叹了。他批注的才子书,经常“妙妙妙妙”不断,你养猫呢?他把即兴和灵感一闪的文学创作,当成了处心积虑的技法和谋略,胡适说金圣叹是中了八股选家的流毒。蘅塘退士的评也八股得很,什么“语语是寻”“字字是望”,所以要看金性尧的注本。

8、推荐金性尧的新注本的一个原因是他给每个诗人写的小传不错。原来王维是少年才子《九月九日忆山东兄弟》是人家十六七岁写的。晚来凄凉,40岁就归隐蓝田,妻亡无子,只有佛经中找慰藉。他晚期的山水诗写得真是一绝。

9、在海航的航班上,上来一个衣冠楚楚的中年男子,他拿起机上的杂志翻看,忽然定在那里。这人就是中文老婆推的创始人王烁。杂志上印着王维的《过香积寺》,这诗他年轻时背过,不但如此,整本《唐诗三百首》他都背过。诗没变,他变了。在这个被唐诗击中的瞬间他决定重背三百首

10、王维的《过香积寺》我也背过。“不知香积寺,数里入云峰。 古木无人径,深山何处钟。 泉声咽危石,日色冷青松,薄暮空潭曲,安禅制毒龙。”年轻时对突兀的最后一句不解,看注释是《涅槃经》的典故,心里住着一毒龙。只有制服,才能心安。其实这毒龙就是生命的意义啊,大哥。

11、因为生长在七八十年代的农村,得以与还没被GDP污染的大自然亲近。所以,我非常喜欢王维的《渭川田家》,那写的简直就是我们村啊。斜阳照墟落,穷巷牛羊归。 野老念牧童,倚杖候荆扉。 雉雊麦苗秀,蚕眠桑叶稀。 田夫荷锄至,相见语依依。 即此羡闲逸, 怅然吟《式微》。

12、想到这里,不禁感怀消逝的八十年代,那时候广播里赏析的是诗歌,播讲的是《复活》,流行的杂志是《名作欣赏》,畅销的图书是邓广铭笺注的《辛弃疾词》(首印售出25万册),金性尧的这本《唐诗三百首新注》(售出200万册)。在如今这个播路况演求偶,人断气鬼吹灯的末法镀金时代,读唐诗是反抗。

13、朋友,你的单位里有小人吗?有傻逼吗?有昏聩的上司吗?有谄媚的同僚吗?你受排挤吗?你不被重用吗?读唐诗吧,唐诗里什么都有,唐代诗人们已经把他们的画皮都剥光、嘴脸都写尽了。杜甫的这首《麂》就是一首发牢骚的代表作。“永与清溪别,蒙将玉馔俱。无才逐仙隐,不敢恨庖厨。乱世轻全物,微声及祸枢。衣冠兼盗贼,饕餮用斯须。”(此诗没有收入《唐诗三百首》)。

14、为什么《唐诗三百首》的开篇是张九龄,因为他是有品有节的一代良相。被李林甫所嫉恨,被唐玄宗罢免。为了避免被害,他写了一首《归燕》,末句“无心与物竞,鹰隼莫相猜”,据说李林甫看了之后,知其必退,怒色稍解。在中国这个坏人扎堆、傻逼云集的社会,读点唐诗可以增强内心的防御力。

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喜极而泣找回的一个书单《MIT人类智慧事业学科带头人书架上不能缺少的12部经典》

Tuesday, February 14th, 2012

我决心以后更新博客勤奋一点,让白板报对人类的头脑更有启发。

人类智能事业(The Human Intelligence Enterprise)是麻省理工学院计算机科学系列的一门课程,具体讲什么的,我也不清楚,大概是专门研究人类的思维的吧。2012年1月6日,推特网友 @cxiaoji 同学,贴出了麻省理工HIE专业推荐给学业带头人的12部经典。

虽然推荐书目谁都会,但一个由理科教授推荐的提升写作能力和领导力的书单,还是让我心生欢喜,神放光明。

这个课程下面的拉丁语FORSAN ET HAEC OLIM MEMINISSE IUVABIT,经查,出自维吉尔的《埃涅阿斯纪》,意思是:“也许一天,这一切会给你带来帮助。”

就在我根据这份书单在美国亚马逊买了一本Bugs in Writing,并花费几百元运回中国,准备开读的时候,我发现MIT的HIE课程页面上的这份书单不见了,内容更新成新学期的教学计划。通过在推特上求助,一位好心的推友 @rse43 帮我从archive.org上找到了这个网页的快照。我差不多都要喜极而泣了。

下面贴出这份书单,期待与爱读书、爱智慧的你分享。

The Human Intelligence Enterprise: Spring 2011

FORSAN ET HAEC OLIM MEMINISSE IUVABIT

Twelve Classics for Every Aspiring Leader’s Bookshelf

Writing instruction

You cannot lead if you cannot communicate. A corollary is that you should hone your writing skills for the rest of your life.

The Elements of Style, William Strunk

Just after I distributed a draft of my first textbook, a student lobbed the dreaded question at me. “Have you read Strunk and White?” she said. I was betrayed because I had not deployed active verbs.

BUGS in Writing: A Guide to Debugging Your Prose, Lyn Dupre

Once Strunk and White is in your blood, read Dupre. She is a developmental editor; that is, she not only performs the lessor, comma-correcting function of a copy editor, she also comments on clarity and structure. After I wrote a few books, I thought I had learned what ordinary copy editors have to teach, so I asked my publisher to find an editor who could make me cry. The found Dupre. She did.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Edward R. Tufte

Because we think with our eyes as well as our mouth, illustrations should properly stimulate your reader’s visual problem solving apparatus. In this domain, Tufte book reigns supreme. Look at the illustrations and discover what he has to say about them. Note, however, that you are likely to be disappointed by the writing style at the sentence and paragraph level.

Writing models

We mimic what we read, so before you write, read something you admire.

Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era, James M. McPherson

If I don’t feel like Shakespeare, I read McPherson, who does Strunk and White great honor in the way he uses verbs. The Battle Cry of Freedom is the best one-volume treatment of the American Civil War and takes you beyond high-school simplifications toward an understanding of the complex economic and political roots of a horrible war.

Molecular Biology of the Gene, James D. Watson

Before you write a textbook or documentation, study Watson’s first edition if you can find it (the Sixth is now available, but multiply authored, so I expect it is less well done). Do not study the biology, study the way Watson explains the biology.

How science works

The Trouble With Physics: The Rise of String Theory, The Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next
, Lee Smolin

In the final chapters of The Trouble with Physics, Smolin explains that tenure decisions focus on maximizing short term reputation of the tenuring university. Accordingly, paradigm shifting geniuses often end up as false negatives because they do not necessarily develop the expected portfolio of papers in refereed journals while they are thinking their deep thoughts. My experiences in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science run amazingly parallel.

The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, James D. Watson

If Watson were to tire of molecular biology, he could become a great mystery writer, on the level of Arthur Conan Doyle. His account of the discovery of the structure of DNA exposes a level of competition, politics, deception, and sexism, and mystery that you would expect to find in a board room, not in a scientific community.

Management and leadership

Out of the Crisis, W. Edwards Deming

McArthur brought Deming to Japan after World War Two. He transformed Japan from a maker a junk into the industrial envy of the world. The Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers have awarded The Deming prize annually for the past 60 years or so in his honor. In his book, he emphasizes that a good leader makes it clear to each person in his/her organization that that person is valued, that his/her work is valued, and his/her work makes a difference. Annual reviews are not for grading, they are for identifying what is done well and where improvement would have the most impact.

Deportment

A Message to Garcia, Elbert Hubbard

Lieutenant Rowan got the message to Garcia. You should too.

Lord Chesterfield’s Letters, Lord Chesterfield

Chesterfield wrote his letters in the first half of the eighteenth century, but much of his advice remains valuable. My grandfather gave me a copy in 1963, with particular parts underlined for my benefit.

Speaking

You cannot actually put these on a bookshelf, but they are useful nevertheless.

How to Speak, Patrick Henry Winston

Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death, Patrick Henry

If you are thinking of starting a revolution, read Henry’s speech and adapt it to your purpose.

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《清史編年》及清史研究之出版

Thursday, February 9th, 2012

《清史編年》及清史研究之出版

这套原价3600元的书,我在二手书店只用了390元就买到了。

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